The disease is characterized by the sudden attack of breathlessness was due to stagnation of blood in the pulmonary vessels.
The main reason why there is cardiac asthma is the weakening of muscle tissue and its inability to provide the outflow of blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
His development of the disease begins in the background of hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, myocardial infarction, acute manifestations of left ventricular failure and others.
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The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease
The main pathological factor that contributes to the attack - this increase in pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure and further joining the following complications:
Long-term emotional and mental stress.
Inadequate exercise their capabilities.
Excess water consumption (more than 2 liters per day).
Fluid retention (hypervolemia, hyperhydration).
Circulatory disturbance during sleep.
Sharp blood flow in the pulmonary circulation by changing the position of the body.
Acute failure of the left ventricle is not able to pump all the blood into the aorta from the lungs, and the normal contractile function of the right atrium continues to fill her small circle of blood circulation, so that there is overflows. The further the pathogenesis of pulmonary gas exchange of breaks, and thus accumulate carbon dioxide, which leads to disruption in the blood supply of the central nervous system, irritate the respiratory center, leading to shortness of breath.
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Symptoms and course of the disease
The most common cardiac asthma makes itself felt at night, due to increased vagal tone.
Thus, the patient may feel fine during the day and even perform simple work, and at night to wake up from a sharp shortage of air. He begins agonizing choking, accompanied by the fear of death. Just before the attack the patient may complain of chest pain radiating to the left arm, heart attacks or disruptions, headache, and feeling of heaviness in the head.
The characteristic symptom of the disease - the inability to take a horizontal position. The patient can only be based on a window sill or a chair, and if you can not get up, then sit with support arms, legs dangling. Head tilted forward, the shoulder belt overstretched chest expanded on his neck swollen veins can be easily seen. This posture helps to reduce shortness of breath.
The attack of cardiac asthma is another common symptom - it is fast breathing with difficulty inhaling and exhaling as well as dry or cough with phlegm. When listening to the lungs can hear crackles in the lower divisions and wheezing on the elongated exhalation (bronchospasm).
Pulmonary edema occurs suddenly. Symptoms are characterized by the growth of its small- and medium bubbling rale, which are well heard in the anterior region of the lungs. This may cause a frothy, with a pink tinge sputum (the output of red blood cells), which is another confirmation of edema.
Symptom to which attention should be paid at the beginning of the attack - it increased heart rate and increased blood pressure. But then the blood pressure gradually decreases, which is a signal of accession collapse. Listening to the heart can not be as noisy breathing and wheezing abundance do not give to do it. Duration of attack may range from several minutes to many hours.
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Diagnosis of the disease
Cardiac asthma have similar symptoms with bronchial, so its diagnosis more difficult. However, the correct diagnosis is very important, because these two diseases have different treatment. In a study pays special attention to signs of underlying pathology that will help determine the etiology of dyspnea.
Diagnosis of the disease is also carried out based on suspicion of bronchial asthma, which usually occurs on the background of allergy. On the outer grounds: while listening to the breath and heartbeat if possible - the doctor makes the initial diagnosis. For confirmation required ECG.
If cardiac asthma is the typical signs that distinguish it does not take much. In this case, exhalation is not difficult to be heard distant wheezing and present the characteristics of swelling of the lungs. However, a doctor may have questions when cardiac asthma is accompanied by bronchospasm with dry wheezing. It is important to know about the presence of allergic history or other lung diseases, which will help to eliminate cardiac asthma. This is confirmed by the factor that there was a cardiac asthma is the positive effect of cardiac glycosides relief of choking.
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First aid and further treatment
As soon as the first signs of incipient suffocation, before arriving ambulances, patients should first be given urgent help. To do this it is convenient to bed or seated in a chair with feet downcast. If possible, it is possible to omit the upper and lower limbs in hot water. Also, to reduce the return of venous blood to the heart to the legs need to apply a tourniquet.
Exempt from the garter dress, unbutton collars and cuffs, belt, provide fresh air, if necessary, carry oxygen therapy and give nitroglycerine under the tongue. This drug can help reduce systemic blood pressure, which greatly facilitates the work of the heart. The remaining appointments are executed strictly on doctor.
Nitroglycerin treatment is started within the first aid after the arrival of the doctor continued. In most cases, a satisfactory state is established in 7 ... 10 minutes.
With lack of effective means of nitroglycerin or if the basis of symptom onset is the neuro-reflex effect, the introduction of 1% morphine under the skin or into a vein will have a calming effect and prevent further narrowing of arterioles and veins. Extreme caution should be if there is a symptom indicating a violation of cerebral circulation: the use of this drug can negatively respond to the excitability of the respiratory center. If you have symptoms of low urine output, then it is introduced into the stimulation / 1% solution of furosemide.
When symptoms of alveolar membrane, which began hypotension, mixed asthma is introduced in / prednisone or hydrocortisone. When the foam is applied electric pump or spend inhalation defoamers (10% solution antifomsilana). In the absence of the possibility of an internal bloodletting to redistribute the blood supply it is replaced by alternate tourniquet for 15 minutes on a limb and venous blood-letting to 200 ... 300 ml.
The decision on admission shall be held either at the first sign of incipient cardiac asthma, or after removal from the state of suffocation. Transportation of the patient is carried out with great care and according to the same rules as in stroke. The further treatment is carried out taking into account the underlying disease.
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Treatment folk remedies
Treatment of folk remedies primarily aimed at to eliminate the causes of cardiac asthma, that is to cure the underlying disease. For this purpose, widely used different concoctions of herbs, mummy and goat milk with iodine. But we note that the lift can not attack people's means, as it requires immediate medical care, which these methods can not give. A delay in this case, even if there was a first symptom of the unit, can lead to disastrous consequences.
It has a good effect welcome infusion of dried rose hips. Regular use helps to reduce the number and severity of attacks. To do this, 2 tbsp. l. well-dried, washed and chopped fruit should be placed in a thermos and pour boiling water. Sustain 10-12 hours and then taken with 100 ml twice a day immediately before meals.
Good folk remedies are considered to be herbal teas. To make a tea from the leaves mother and stepmother, will require 1 hour. L. Herbs pour boiling water, stand in a water bath for 10 ... 12 minutes. Drink several times a day with honey. By the same principle used quinoa leaves, nettle, reed. Good action is the decoction of yarrow herb, infusion of walnut walls, hawthorn fruit.
It is useful to take the mummy dissolved in broth liquorice. To do this, is preparing a decoction of 1 tbsp. l. root and 0, 5 liters of water. The resulting mixture is dissolved in an amount mumie 0, 5 g and taken in the morning fasting one glass.
All of the above tips not only have a therapeutic effect, but also have an excellent preventive effect.